Handbook ::  C. General Rules and Recommendations for Tournaments

C.04.3.3. Dubov System

Approved by the 1997 General Assembly.

Preface:
The DUBOV Swiss Pairing System is designed to maximise the fair treatment of the players. This means that a player having a higher rating performance than another player during a tournament should have more points as well.
If the average rating of all players is nearly equal, like in a round robin tournament, the goal is reached. As a Swiss System is a more or less statistical system, this goal can only be reached approximately.
The approach is the attempt to equalise the average rating of the opponents of all players of a score group. Therefore the pairing of a round will pair players who have played low rated players before with players having high ratings now.

1.

Introductory definitions
"R" is the rating of a player
"ARO" is the average rating of a player's opponents. ARO must be calculated after each round as basis of the pairings.
The "due colour of a player is white",

  • if he has played more games with black than with white before
  • if these numbers are equal and he has played black his previous game.

The "due colour of a player is black",

  • if he has played more games with white than with black before
  • if these numbers are equal and he has played white his previous game.

2.

Pairings limitations (see Basic Rules, section C.04.1, rules b, c, d, g, f)

 

2.5

Apart from the last round a player cannot be transferred to a higher score group two times running and more than three times (if the tournament has less than 10 rounds) or four times (if the tournament has more than 9 rounds) during one tournament.

 

2.6

A player shall not be transferred from the subgroup due to a colour to the subgroup due to the other colour if this would violate the limitations C.04.1.f or C.04.1.g.

3.

Colour allocation.
Pairing two players the colour allocation shall regard with descending priority:

  • give both players their due colour
  • equalise the numbers of black and white games played before
  • alternate the colours of both players regarding the first difference of their colour history going back from the previous round to the first round.
  • assign white to the player with the higher ARO
  • assign white to the player with the lower R

4.

Odd number of players at the tournament
The player from the lowest score group, who has the lowest R will get the bye.
If there are players with the lowest R in both the colour subgroups, then the player to get the bye must be due to the dominating colour and in case there are several players with equal R, the player to get the bye must have the higher ARO

5.

Pairing for the first round
The player's list calculated before is divided into two equal parts: The players from the upper part of the list are placed on the left and those from the lower part, on the right. The first player from the left-hand list plays the first player from the right-hand list, the second plays the second, etc. After that, the colour of the pieces is determined by drawing lots for one of the pairs, for example, for the first pair. In such a case, all odd-numbered pairs have the same colours as the first pair, whereas all even-numbered pairs have the other colour.
If the number of the players is odd, the last player in the list gets the bye having no colour.
This pairing procedure leads to identical results as the procedures used within the other FIDE Swiss Systems

6.

The standard pairing procedure for the remaining rounds.

 

6.1

Standard requirement (Special cases see below chapter 7.):
The number of players having the same score is even and the number of players with due colour white and black is the same. Each player in the score group has at least one possible opponent in the score group

 

6.2

First attempt
The players who should play with the white pieces are arranged in order of increasing ARO , the ARO being the same the player with the lower R is placed higher. If ARO and R coincide completely, the players are to be placed alphabetically
The players who should play the black pieces are arranged in order of decreasing R, if R is the same, the player with the higher ARO is placed higher. If ARO and R coincide completely, the players are to be placed alphabetically.
Two columns of numbers are written down, thereby arranging the pairs.
For example:

White (ARO)

Black (R)

2310.0

2380

2318.4

2365

2322.3

2300

2333.7

2280

2340.5

2260

2344.6

2250

The names of the players are then written down, and only one fact is checked - whether the players have not played their opponents before

 

6.3

Improvements
If the players have already played each other, then the "white" player is paired with the first "black" player whom he has not played before, from the lower rows;
If such a coincidence takes place in the last row for a group of players with the same score, then the last but one row is changed.
If a coincidence takes place in a row No. k of a group with the same score and all the "blacks" from the lower group have already played with the "white" No. k, then we change the pairing in row No. k - 1, if this does not work, in row No.k-2, etc.
If the "white" No. k has already played with all the "blacks", we look for an opponent for him, beginning with the "white" No.k+1 down to the end of the column, and then, beginning with the "white" No. k -1 down to the "white" No.1. The colours of the pairings are assigned due to the colour allocation rules.

 

6.4

Floater
The aim of the pairing procedure is to pair all players within a score group.
If that cannot be achieved the remaining unpaired players are transferred to the next lower score group and treated according to chapter 8.
If there is a choice the floaters should be chosen due to these characteristics with decreasing preference:

  1. the player was not floater from higher score groups and can be paired in the lower score group
  2. the player was not floater from higher score groups and cannot be paired in the lower score group
  3. the player was floater from higher score groups and can be paired in the lower score group
  4. the player was floater from higher score groups and cannot be paired in the lower score group

7.

Transfer of players to meet the requirement of Chapter 6
If the requirement of the standard pairing procedure is not fully fulfilled the following transfers shall be carried out in the order listed below

 

7.1

If a player has already played with all the players of his own score group, a player from the next possible lower score group is transferred to the score group to be paired who has not yet played with the player in question and can be paired according to the colour allocation rules
The player to be transferred should fulfil the following requirements with descending priority:

  1. the due colour is opposite to the due colour of the player in question.
  2. if there is a choice, then the player with the highest R is to be transferred.
  3. if there are more than one players having the same R then the one with the lowest ARO will be transferred.

 

7.2

If the number of players of the score group odd, a player from the next possible lower score group shall be transferred to the score group to be paired, who has not yet played with at least one of the players of the higher score group and is allowed to be paired according to the colour allocation rules.
This player to be transferred should fulfil the following requirements with descending priority:

  • his due colour is opposite to the dominating due colour of the higher score group.
  • if there is a choice, then the player with the highest R is to be transferred.
  • if there are more than one players having the same R then the one with the lowest ARO will be transferred

 

7.3

If the number of players in the score group is even and the number of Whites exceeds the Blacks by 2n, then n "white" players, who have the lowest ARO, are transferred to the black group. If their ARO is equal, the player with the higher R is chosen. Should both (ARO and R) coincide completely, the list of the players is arranged alphabetically, the transfer being made from the upper half.

 

7.4

If the number of players with the same score is even and the number of Whites is smaller than the number of Blacks by 2n, then n "black" players, who have the highest ARO, are transferred to the white group. If their ARO is equal, the player with the lower R is chosen. Should both (ARO and R) coincide completely, the list of the players is arranged alphabetically, the transfer being made from the upper half

8.

Treatment of floaters

 

8.1

Priority of floater-pairing
The floaters having due colour white are arranged according to chapter 6.2
The floaters having due colour black are arranged according to chapter 6.2
Beginning with the highest "white" floater the floaters are paired one by one going down to the lowest floater alternating between "white" and "black".

 

8.2

Pairing the floaters
Each of the floaters is paired with the player having the highest R, if possible having the opposite due colour. If there are more than one player with equal R, the player with the lowest ARO is chosen

9.

Final remarks
The list of AROs should be published after each round to make it possible for the players to calculate the pairings on their own.
A situation which cannot be directly resolved by using the given instructions, the referee should proceed wisely and impartially in the spirit of the basic principles outlined above.

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