Handbook ::  C. General Rules and Recommendations for Tournaments

C.04.1 Basic rules for Swiss Systems

The following rules are valid for each Swiss system unless explicitly stated otherwise.

a

The number of rounds to be played is declared beforehand.

b

Two players shall not play against each other more than once.

c

Should the number of players to be paired be odd, one player is unpaired. This player receives a pairing-allocated bye: no opponent, no colour and as many points as are rewarded for a win, unless the rules of the tournament state otherwise.

d

A player who has already received a pairing-allocated bye, or has already scored a (forfeit) win due to an opponent not appearing in time, shall not receive the pairing-allocated bye.

e

In general, players are paired to others with the same score.

f

For each player the difference between the number of black and the number of white games shall not be greater than 2 or less than –2.
Each system may have exceptions to this rule in the last round of a tournament.

g

No player shall receive the same colour three times in a row.
Each system may have exceptions to this rule in the last round of a tournament.

h

1

In general, a player is given the colour with which he played less games.

2

If colours are already balanced, then, in general, the player is given the colour that alternates from the last one with which he played.

i

The pairing rules must be such transparent that the person who is in charge for the pairing can explain them.

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